D. Boyd, Friendster lost steam. Is MySpace just a fad ? Apophenia Blog, Mars, vol.21, 2006.

M. Castells, The Information Age I-III. Cambridge MA, Oxford : Blackwell (trad. fr. 1998-1999 : L'ère de l'information I-III, 1996.

A. /. Degenne and M. Forsé, Les réseaux sociaux. 2e édition, Convergence Culture, 2004.

A. Keen, The Cult of the Amateur : How Today's Internet Is Killing Our Culture, 2007.

R. /. Latham, . Sassen, and . Saskia, Digital Formations : IT and New Architectures in the Global Realm, 2005.
DOI : 10.1515/9781400831616

L. Bon and G. , Psychologie des foules. PUF : Paris Lovink, Digitale Nihilisten. Lettre International, N° 73, pp.94-99, 1895.

H. Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier: HarperPerennial (trad. fr. 1995 : Les communautés virtuelles, 1993.

B. /. Rieder, M. Schäfer, and . Tobias, Hybrid Foam Discourse Architecture and Very Large-scale Conversation, Social Structure before Network and Community. BSA Annual Conference Digital Formations : IT and New Architectures in the Global Realm, pp.242-282, 2005.

J. H. Saltzer, D. P. Reed, and D. D. Clark, End-to-end arguments in system design, ACM Transactions on Computer Systems, vol.2, issue.4, pp.277-288, 1984.
DOI : 10.1145/357401.357402

P. Sloterdijk, ) : Sphären I-III. Frankfurt : Suhrkamp (trad. fr, 1998.

J. Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds : Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft. Leipzig : Fues's Verlag Watts, Doubleday Tönnies Duncan J. Science of Networks. Annual Review of Sociology, vol.30, issue.1, pp.243-270, 1887.