Organisation du complexe d’espèce et décryptage des structures des génomes en mosaïque interspécifiques chez les agrumes cultivés

Abstract : Citrus fruit, the most important fruit crop in the world, show a wide phenotypic diversity. Previous studies (molecular markers) identified four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata Blanco, mandarins; C. maxima (Burm.) Merr., pummelos; C. medica L., citrons; C. micrantha Wester, papedas) as the ancestors of all cultivated Citrus after reticulate evolutions. As a result, modern citrus varieties have complex and highly heterozygous genotypic structures, generally fixed by apomixis, and formed by a mosaic of large chromosomal fragments of different phylogenetic origins. Furthermore, the structuration of the phenotypic variability suggests that the initial differentiation of the basic taxa is the main source of most of the variability of the useful citrus phenotypic diversity. A thorough knowledge of the origin of cultivated citrus and their phylogenomic structure are essential for the management of biological resources and breeding program optimization. This thesis explores different approaches for analyzing genome diversity in order to identify the phylogenetic origins of the various horticultural citrus groups and to decipher their phylogenomic genome's structures. We focused on limes and lemons. This thesis takes advantage of the rapid evolution of NGS and proposes a rational use of available tools, based on research questions. Roche 454 parallel sequencing of amplicons provides multi-loci haplotype information on 500 base fragments. It was used to decipher the interspecific mosaic structure of chromosome 2 for fifty varieties and to identify ancestral taxa diagnostic SNP markers. The genotyping of all limes and lemons of the Inra/Cirad and Ivia germplasms with these markers, in association with SSR and indel markers, allowed to propose new hypothesis on the origins of limes and lemons. Data from Illumina whole genome re-sequencing of 7 varieties of limes and lemons, compared to those of representatives of the ancestral taxa, allowed to infer the interspecific structure of their genomes and to map out, for the first time, their phylogenomic karyotypes. The different approaches led to similar conclusions. Our results confirm previous hypothesis about the evolutionary steps at the origin of sour orange (C. aurantium), sweet orange (C. sinensis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) involving C. maxima and C. reticulata gene pools. They highlight frequent introgressions of C. maxima in the genome of mandarin varieties despite the fact they were considered as representative of C. reticulata. We were also able to quantify the relative proportions of these two ancestral taxa in the genome of many varieties of small citrus fruit (mandarin hybrids, tangors and tangelos). Our work on limes and lemons demonstrate that C. medica is the male parent of this varietal group at the diploid level. Two groups of lemons are clearly differentiated: one from direct hybridizations between C. reticulata and C. medica, and one from crosses between hybrids (C. maxima × C. reticulata) and C. medica. Sour orange seems to be the female parent of ‘Eureka' type lemons (C. limon). The ‘Mexican' limes (C. aurantifolia) seems to come from a direct hybridization C. micrantha × C. medica. Finally, triploid big fruit limes have two major origins. The ‘Tahiti' type probably results from an ‘Eureka' type lemon (C. limon) ovule fecundated by a diploid gamete of a ‘Mexican' type lime (C. aurantifolia), while the other type would come from a back-cross between C. aurantifolia (diploid gamete) and C. medica. This new insights in genomic structure of secondary species makes to consider possible a reconstruction of these ideotypes from ancestral taxa germplasm. They also open new ways for association genetic studies based on phylogenomics of genes involved in the development of quality, resistance and adaptation traits. Finally, developed specific taxa diagnostic markers will find many applications for the characterization of collections and further genetic studies.
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Franck Curk. Organisation du complexe d’espèce et décryptage des structures des génomes en mosaïque interspécifiques chez les agrumes cultivés. Génétique des plantes. Université Montpellier II - Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014MON20223⟩. ⟨tel-02290617⟩



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