Abstract : This paper deals with the conflicting relationship between the scientist and the dissemination and recognition of his ideas and theories. We will show, through historical and contemporary examples, how complex and always subtle the problem of censorship is, in this sensitive dialectic between the scientific world and society, for ideological and political reasons, but also because of internal reasons of the scientific world itself, and of its overbearing rules about recognition and control. Dealing with censored science entails dealing with science as a censor too: scientific revolutions, which disrupt strong paradigms, are first the object of such a censorship by science itself. We will bring up the current advance of the freedom of publication thanks to the ermergence of the new technologies of information and communication. Open access enhances the freedom of science, but it makes us wonder whether an excess of freedom and information is not going to destroy them both.