Abstract : The project of Mediterranean Union launched by the President of the French Republic is clearly inspired for the moment from the strategic and political point of view. Its announcement comes “top down”. That approach sets its ambitions and limits from the start. The reflexion based on the paradigm of the territorial intelligence can be used for examining it under another angle and contributing to its success. Indeed, one of the barriers to the success of this project would be the hostility or even the indifference of the populations concerned. The failure of the process of Barcelona is here to testify. To make again the same thing 10 years later would undoubtedly lead to the same result. The project of Mediterranean Union is for the moment a Utopia. The participative democracy on the scale of a union of territories must be freed from the traditional schemes of territorial confrontations to form part of the movement of Mondiality. In present day Europe, the concept of nation is evolving and regions take an increasingly notable place. On the planet Earth, the great areas are those of North compared to those of the South. The mechanisms of the participative democracy then implement not only forms of collaboration but also of the principles of reasoning which we place under the sign of the Territorial Intelligence.