Abstract : Fifteen years after the Web network was born, the article evaluates the outstanding evolutions of scientific publishing in the digital context. The digital commitment, in natural sciences as well as in human and social sciences, is emphasized by different dynamics of public and private actors. The significant progression of free access to these publications is also pointed out as is the now decisive weight of some access points for the users. The economy of access has become an important and strategic element: It now gives way to new partnerships, especially with search engines. The evolutions of scientific publishing also affect a series of innovative practices taken on by the users themselves, especially new reviews, open archives or researchers'blogs. This ascending evolution can no longer be ignored in the midst of the transformations in progress. Finally, the author deals with the impact of this new order on different social practices, for instance on the evolution of reading and of university pedagogies and the new light cast by this easily accessible literature on the orientation of the scientific policies to come.